Gilgit-Baltistan: A Chronology

By Bahram Khan Shad

Following are brief accounts of various historical events:
1. Prior to 1840, the region of Gilgit-Baltistan was divided into smaller princely states. Baltistan, Nagar, Hunza, Gilgit, Punial and Yasin were royal states. Diamer had a tribal system. Chitral as a royal state had relations with Gilgit-Baltistan. The rulers of these states were always at war, but also routinely built relationships through marriages. The state of Gilgit was insecure because there were attacks by beighboring states, especially Yasin.
2. The rulers of Gilgit state developed relations with foreign rulers to deal with possible dangers, thus showing the Sikh rulers of Punjab the way to Gilgit so that Gohar Aman, the ruler of Yasin state, could be confined to Yasin.
3. In 1846, the British set the sun of Sikh rule in the Punjab and in the same year, under the Amritsar Agreement, the British made Gulab Singh the Maharaja of Jammu and Kashmir by receiving 7.5 million Nanakshahis from the Sikh traitor and British hero Gulab Singh.
4. In 1852, Gohar-i-Aman invaded and captured Gilgit from Yasin, and Karim Khan, the ruler of Gilgit, fled and took refuge with Maharaja Gulab Singh.
5. Gohar Aman died a natural death in 1860 and this time Maharaja Ranveer Singh took the fugitive ruler of Gilgit and evicted Gohar Aman’s son from Gilgit and confined him to Yasin. In 1863, the Maharaja, along with the ruler of Gilgit, attacked Yasin and invaded the fort of Maruri and massacred him.
6. After 1860, the Maharaja and the British gradually began to realize the importance of Gilgit-Baltistan. After 1860, the British started playing the Great Game against the Russian Empire in which Afghanistan and Gilgit-Baltistan were geographically centralized. For this purpose, the British considered it necessary to influence the rulers of Gilgit-Baltistan through the Maharaja of Kashmir. Thus the British started wrapping the sovereign status of Gilgit-Baltistan by using the Maharaja as their tool and by defeating the last independent state Hunza in 1890 also nailed the last nail in the coffin of the independent Gilgit-Baltistan and the British established Gilgit Agency.
7. In 1947, the subcontinent was divided and Pakistan came into being. At the behest of Major Brown, the Gilgit Scouts revolted in Gilgit and arrested Governor Ghansara Singh. The following year, General Pasha also arrived from General Headquarters Pindi to liberate Skardu and Astor, and when there was resistance in Skardu, Mehtar Chitral also sent his army. Gilgit-Baltistan has two views on its accession to Pakistan.
1) Joined.
2) Not affiliated. If so, when, where and between whom?
8. In 1948, India raised the issue of Kashmir in the United Nations, which led to a ceasefire and the two agreed on a referendum.
9 In 1949, Pakistan annexed Gilgit-Baltistan to the Kashmir dispute by concluding the Karachi Agreement with the Kashmiri leadership in the hope of a referendum. The Gilgit-Baltistan leadership had no knowledge of the agreement.
According to UN resolutions, Gilgit-Baltistan is part of the Kashmir dispute. Historically, Gilgit-Baltistan has not been a part of Kashmir. If Gilgit-Baltistan is part of Kashmir, due to the brief history of occupation as a result of military attacks, then Kashmir is part of India and India is part of Britain.
The writer is lecturer in History at the Aga Khan Higher Secondary school, Gahkuch 

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